Rufous Hornero ( Furnarius rufus )

19 cm. The body is brown, darker in the back and ferruginous in the tail. The ventral part is light brown.
Distribution:
Northeast, Mideast to South of Brazil, also in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Bolivia. Has been spreading its distribution along with deforestation.
Habitat:
Open landscapes, fields, cerrado, lawns and gardens.
Diet:
Mainly arthropods, sometimes seeds.
Reproduction:
The couple builds the nest with mud, manure and straw that they carry with their beaks and model with their feet. The nest is usually built on tall trees. Each year a new nest is built, sometimes over the previous ones (up to 11 nests one above the other). The nest has two divisions and the eggs (3 to 4) are laid in only one of them to confuse predators. Both male and female incubate the eggs during the day, but only by the female in the night. The brood is fed by the couple that may enter other abandoned nests in order to draw the attention of predators away from its true nest. Young birds may help their parents building the nest and remain in the territory.
Natural history:
It is a very popular bird with many legends inspired in its habits. One of them is that the male shuts the unfaithful female inside the nest. Some people believe the bird is catholic and does not work on Sundays. The folklore says that the hornero taught the indians of the Caxinauß tribe how to make cooking pans out of mud. The males are aggressive and fight with rivals until both fall to the ground. Lives generally in couples and sings in duets near the nest. Its nest is used by other species of birds and invaded by anis and hawks hunting for offspring.