36 cm. The legs and the beak are yellow. The tail is short and the wings are broad, with a somewhat rectangular shape when flying. The chest is light brown streaked in different colors and the upper parts are in shades of gray. The immature is brown and striated. The female is slightly larger than the male. Distribution: From Mexico to Argentina. Habitat: Inhabits cerrado, gallery and secondary forests, fields, farms and cities. Diet: Big insects, amphibians, small lizards , MAMMALs and birds. Sometimes hunts perched bats. May follow groups of coatis or monkeys, catching animals displaced by their movements. Reproduction: The nest is a platform built on the top of tall trees. It is made of sticks and lined with dry leaves. The eggs (one or two) are incubated by the female. The male feeds both female and offspring. It is one of the commonest hawks in Brazil. It is often seen in pairs flying in circles and vocalizing repeatedly in duets that are very noisy. When in cities perches on the top of buildings and feeds on pigeons and rodents.
62 cm in length, 143 cm of wingspan. The feathers are absent in the head and neck. The body is black, with white spots near the tip of the wings (seen only when flying). Distribution: From central U.S.A to central Argentina. Habitat: Virtually in any kind of landscape, preferably in open areas. Absent in large areas of dense vegetation. Diet: Mainly carrion. Does not hunt, but kills injured or young animals, such as turtle eggs and hatchlings, even newly born big MAMMALs like calves. May eat fruits. The excellent eyesight helps finding carrion at long distances. Reproduction: The courtship consists of movements of the male jumping on the ground with the wings opened and then flights to impress the female with its dexterity. The nest is built in a hidden place that may be the dense canopy of trees or rocky places. The young individuals are fed on a regurgitated liquid with a horrible odor. Natural history: It plays an important role scavenging carrion such as road kills. May fly long distances without beating the wings using ascending winds. To regulate the temperature of the body it urinates over the feet and opens the wings. The bare head helps it penetrating corpses in order to reach the internal organs.
18,5 cm. The body is brown, darker in the upper parts, wings and tail. The tip of the wings are cinnamon. The male’s head is light grey. The immature has buffy spots in the wings. Distribution: Throughout Brazil. From Mexico to Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina. Habitat: Lives in any open landscape. Adapts to life in big cities. Diet: Feeds on grains and fruits. Swallows the whole seeds, thus it may be poisoned by seeds with pesticides. Searchs for food on the ground. Reproduction: Breeds throughout the year, and may have three or four broods. When mating the male raises one of the wings. They caress each other in the head and give food as gifts. It is a monogamous species. The nest is made of sparse stems in shrubs and trees not far from the ground. Nests abandoned by other species may also be used. Two ore more white eggs are laid and incubated by the couple. When there is a predator nearby the couple draws its attention away from the nest pretending they are hurt and guiding them to somewhere else. The nest may be used consecutively. Natural history: It is the best known dove in Brazil and in some cities it has become the most abundant bird. Sings throughout the year. When nervous raises both wings. When the opponent is considered weaker it raises the wing facing it as if to strike immediately. When the opponent is stronger it raises the opposite wing as a sign of submission. May hit each other trying to steal food, mainly in urban areas. Are frequently prey to carnivorous MAMMALs and birds of prey. May be taken by the false vampire (Chrotopterus auritus) while asleep. This bat swallows the whole prey starting by the head.
The Guanaco (Lama guanicoe), pertaining the family of the camels, is the biggest terrestrial MAMMAL of Chile, also inhabiting regions of Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. Very common in the region of the patagônia.
Educational Technology Laboratory Department of Biochemistry Institute of Biology Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz Rua Monteiro Lobato, 255 Campinas SP, Brasil 13083-862